Scanning Probe Microscopy
Todays, many users, which have been associated in different shapes to analyzing the surface and thin layer, however, have probably sufficient information, about the SEM and TEM electron microscopy, but their information is limited and often incomplete data about relatively new generation of microscopes, called scanning probe microscopes.
Usually, the most of them also know SPM microscopes as a new microscope, which offers only information about the surface topography. This is while, the world of scanning probe microscopes is very broad, and includes analysis of many   properties of the surface, which sometimes electron microscopes are not able to do it.
Unlike initial impressions, it doesn't represents alone a special microscope but rather represents a collection of microscopes with different capabilities, which are used for determining the surface properties at the nanometer scales, and at them the sample surface to be scanned instead of electrons with a special probe. Today there is almost no advanced laboratory in the field of thin film, surface and nanotechnology, in which there isn’t scanning microscopes.
The scanning microscope SPM, there are in different modes, depending on the type of performance. Modes of AFM, STM, LFM, MFM and SNOM, are the most important modes of scanning probe microscopes, which with their help can be extracted the information about the thin film surface, which continues to be discussed.



Figure 1: overview of the needle tip scanning over the sample surface.

Generally, a scanning microscope is composed of four main parts:
1. The main base that according to Figure 2 includes: desk, glass plate and probe holder.
2- Scanner
3. The controller system.
4. The Software of SPM.

Figure 2: An example of SPM base and scanner manufactured by DME.

The main parts of the microscope are:
1. Desk X-Y
2. Glass plate
3. Scanner
4. The holder of the scanner
5. CCD Camera.

For perform analysis, first sample is placed carefully on the base and the sample surface is scanned by a special probe, which is mounted on the scanner. Resulted signals from the scanning probe go to the controller, as shown in Figure 3, and this information is transferred to the computer after the initial processing in the controller, as shown in Fig. The existing software on the computer starts to rebuild the image and form the multiple images (two or three-dimensional), in different modes, after reprocessing the received data from the controller.


Figure 3: Schematic view of SPM system,1. Computer 2. Controllers 3. Microscope.